AAC Blocks manufacturing process follows Mixing, dosing, Casting, Rising, pre-curing, Demolding, cutting, steam Curing, and transporting.
In this way blocks are prepared and transported.
Autoclave Aerated Concrete (AAC)
It is a form of cellular concrete and low-density cementitious product of calcium silicate hydrates in which the low density is obtained by the formation of microscopic air bubbles, mainly due to chemical reaction formed inside the liquid mass.
The air bubbles are uniformly distributed and are retained in the matrix on the setting, hardening, and subsequent curing with high-pressure steam in an autoclave to produce a homogeneous structure of macroscopic voids or cells.
- AAC was first commercially produced in the year 1923
- It was introduced by a Swedish scientist.
- IS codebook for AAC: IS 2185-3 (1984)
AAC Blocks manufacturing process
Flow chart for Autoclaved Aerated Concrete production, i.e AAC blocks manufacturing process:
Step-1: Preparation of raw materials
Raw materials or Ingredients for AAC blocks manufacturing process are cement, sand, lime, fly ash, Gypsum, and Aluminum.
Raw material preparation is an important part of any manufacturing process.
Cement-53-grade Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) from
the manufacturer is required for manufacturing AAC Blocks.
Fly ash or sand: Fly ash is mixed with water to form fly ash
slurry. The slurry thus formed is mixed with other ingredients
like lime powder, cement, gypsum, and Aluminum powder
in proportionate quality to form blocks.
Limestone powder: Lime powder required for AAC
production is acquired by crushing limestone to fine
powder at AAC factory or purchasing it directly from other companies.
Gypsum: Gypsum is readily available in the market.
Step-2: Mixing and dosing
Some Limitations are:
- FLY ASH OR SAND : LIME:CEMENT: GYPSUM = 69:20:8:3,
- Aluminum is mixed about 0.08% of total dry materials in the mix,
- water ratio = 0.60 – 0.6
The cycle of mixing and pouring is 5.5 minutes and first all the
ingredients are poured into different containers according to mix
Then control system pours into a mixing drum and once the mixture
is ready to set then using the dosing unit, concrete is poured into
For AAC blocks manufacturing process, entire dosing and mixing operation
is completely automated and requires minimum human
Step-3: Casting, Rising, Pre-curing, demolding, and cutting
Based on installation capacity molds size is fixed and generally it will be 4.2m x 1.2m x 0.65m in size
While slurry is mixed and poured into greased molds, Aluminum
reacts with Calcium Hydroxide and water and releases hydrogen gas.
chemical reaction ( 2Al + 3Ca(OH)2 + 6H2O → 3CaO.Al2O3.6H2O + 3 H2 )
This leads to the formation of tiny cells causing the slurry mix to expand and it takes about 1-2hrs. This is known as the pre-curing process. Such expansion may be thrice its original volume.
After rising and getting enough strength to withstand its own weight then Demolding and cutting is done with required dimensions
Step-4: Curing and transporting
Using Autoclave AAC is cured–a large pressure vessel An autoclave is normally a steel tube of 3m diameter and 45 meters long.
Steam is fed into the autoclaved at high pressure, typically reaching a pressure of 800kPa to 1200 KPa and a temperature of 180°C for at least 5hrs.
Properties of blocks mainly depend on steam curing and raw material proportions.
When the blocks attain required properties are stored in
an area and transported.
Dimensions and Applications of the block
Based on thickness different sizes are available in the market;
- 4 Inch
- 6 Inch
- 8 Inch
- 9 Inch
Applications: These blocks are used in residential and commercial buildings also institutional. A special application of AAC such as firewalls and soundproof walls
- Reduces Material usage
- Minimize Pollution and waste, as it is eco-friendly.
- The manufacturing process uses less energy compared to traditional methods
- The manufacturing process is pollution-free
- Due to lightweight and dimensional accuracy material wastage is avoided.
- Lowering operating cost
- Labor charges are reduced up to 15 % and construction get faster by 20 %
- AAC block weighs almost around 80% less than the conventional red brick ultimately resulting in a great reduction of deadweight. with this slab thickness is reduced and the overall cost of the building is tremendously reduced.
- Demand is more but Supply is Poor –More Plants are required
- Familiarization of products among contractors and masons and also to make the practice of using thin-set mortar compare to traditional mortar
- The cost of Setting up AAC manufacturing plants is high.
1) What is the cost of each block?
- Cost is based on cubic meter Around Rs. 3,050/Cubic Meter,
- from the below calculation,
- we got 44 bricks per cubic meter so for each block it costs around 3050/44=69.32 ( approximately 70/- )
2) How many blocks per cubic meter?
- 1 cubic meter = 1,000,000,000 (mm)^3
- Each block has a volume of (625 *240*15) = 2250000 (mm)^3.
- No. of blocks in 1 m^3 is = 1,000,000,000/22500000= 1,000,0/225= 44.44
- Therefore 44 blocks can be fitted
3) Which is better CLC (Cellular Light Weight Concrete) or AAC?
CLC production is not an easy task and can have an impact on batch to batch. CLC requires a long curing period and achieved strength depending on the setup and quality control at the manufacturing unit
An overview of AAC block manufacturing: https://www.constructiontechnology.in/equipments/details/280