Masonry walls are a very important part of any construction as they give better protection from the outside environment and give a nice finish to the structure, so in this article, we will try to know different types of masonry walls, that are best for your house.
Different types of masonry walls are mainly divided based on material type and masonry type, and are discussed below;
Different types of masonry walls based on material type;
- Stones are the most durable material among all masonry units, They are laid down and bind together with the help of binding material.
- Stones are rarely affected by environmental crises and they are not susceptible to fire, corrosion, winds, heat,..etc.
- Based on the geological formation of stone they have 500-1000 years of lifespan;
- In India, there were many temples that were built with stone masonry and the average age of construction is approximately 500 years.
- The other types of material in stone masonry are; Rubble masonry and ashlar masonry
- Brick masonry is done with burnt clay bricks, which are durable and strong, so they are used for a load-bearing wall.
- Stone and Brick are the best materials for load-bearing walls but when the height of the building increases, we have to increase the thickness accordingly.
- Bricks are weak in tension, so cracks are easily formed when compressive loads increases.
- The size, number of bricks, and joints play a major role in the performance of the bricks.
- The block masonry units are becoming more popular nowadays due to many reasons, They are Bigger and lighter, so require less mortar and less no. of joints, which in turn saves a lot of money and time.
- Types of Block Masonry; Solid concrete block Masonry, Hollow concrete block masonry, AAC block Masonry, CLC block masonry, etc…
- These blocks are made from new-age materials and save fertile soil from being used for manufacturing conventional brick.
- The block masonry is either reinforced or un-reinforced.
- The Gabion are baskets, usually protected with galvanized steel wire filled with fractured stones of medium size.
- The Gabion act as a single unit and are capable of resisting horizontal forces.
- They are mostly used as a retaining wall, and also for aesthetic purposes.
- Gabion Masonry has the advantage of good drainage, as they are resistant to flood, frost, and soil erosion.
- Their expected life depends mainly on mesh and it increases if we use the best corrosive resistant material.
- Masonry is constructed with the help of two or more materials is known as composite Masonry.
- In composite Masonry we use two wythes (wythe is a vertical section of masonry), one wythe can be brick and another wythe can be hollow, etc… These two wythes are joined with the help of reinforcement.
- The composite Masonry may be adopted due to the following reasons;
- To use available materials for maximum economy.
- To improve the appearance of the building.
- Reinforced Masonry is a process of installing steel reinforcement in the form of reinforcing bars and placed in the holes of blocks then filled with concrete or grout.
- The reinforcement increases the tensile strength of Masonry and can withstand horizontal forces, like seismic loads.
- The ductility of the Masonry increases significantly which allows them to deform prior to breaking.
- Reinforced Masonry walls can be load-bearing or non-load-bearing walls.
Different types of masonry walls based on mortar type;
Masonry with cement Mortar
- Mixing cement with sand and water will give cement mortar which is an adhesive and helps in binding the various materials.
- Cement mortar is a very strong binding material that helps the joints to attain greater strength to resist maximum loads.
- So, for most of the Masonry walls, we prefer cement mortar instead of any other available mortar
Masonry with lime Mortar
- Lime mortar is made of lime, water, and sand
- This Lime mortar is mainly used for the conservation of the old buildings or recreation of the new buildings using traditional techniques.
- Lime is more porous than cement, so most of the time we prefer cement mortar
Masonry with mud Mortar
- Mud is the first invented mortar and used for binding stones hundreds of years ago.
- If we use mud as a mortar we can reduce the cost of Masonry construction by 22%
- But the mud Mortar is not resistant to weathering and other environmental hazards.